Monday, November 23, 2015

Legends of Chief Cobmoosa & Pres. A.J. - 36

       To really understand Cobmoosa you must see the whole picture of the times under which he lived.  An older historian once impressed upon me - don't study the man, but study the people, known or unknown about his life and times.  They will provide you with insights to be shared with others.
       It has taken me five years of research to write about Cobmoosa and under what conditions he made his mark on Indian life and that of others.  Recently while researching his travels I came across an interesting tale about how the Indians of Cobmoosa's villages were invited to the second Fourth of July 1837 celebrations at Ionia, Michigan. 
       Samuel Dexter, Alfred Cornell Jr., and Sanford Yeomans engaged the services of Ezekiel Welch to set up a dinner for fifty area couples and build a 100 foot long table.  With assistance from Welch's wife she baked a dinner consisting of roast beef, roast pigs and all the fixings.  She prepared the meal for one hundred settlers, but only 80 arrived and since there were many leftovers the master of ceremonies decided not to let it go to waste.  He extended an invitation to local Indians who were walking about to fill up.  It was said the hungry redskins attacked the tables with invigorated and voracious appetites and ate everything so it appeared no food was left on the tables.  Picked clean as if the food never existed.  The only local Indians were those of Cobmoosa's village and there was a shortage of food supplies as small pox waned.  Cobmoosa was off teaching the youngest surviving Indians  how to hunt and fish in the upper Flat River area and bring food back to his people.
       Why do I tell you this now - because it was what happened for the better, the bringing together of three different cultures (black, red and white).  They all feasted together as one civilized unit, but even back then 10 couples decided not to partake and ignored their pledges to take part and left - that was why so much food was left on the tables.  Doesn't matter what color of skin when you might be starving.  Don't waste food - someone or something might benefit from malnutrition.
        But something more spectacular happened.  I stumbled upon something I had been researching since 1985 in "Search for Secrets of a Sunken Cannon."  Previously in this blog I mentioned that President Andrew Jackson received letters from missionaries in Grand Rapids telling him that war drums were beating louder each night by renegade Indians hoping to stop negotiations in the winter of 1835-36. 
       Jackson dispatched an army detachment hauling two 4-pound cannons.  While crossing the Grand River on river ice east of Portland, the two cannons broke thru thin ice.  Only one cannon was recovered.  Unknown was the risen cannon's destination - but both disappeared.  Destination unknown until...
       I stumbled upon a different 1837 Independence Day celebration.   At Lyons east of Ionia, they had a "bowery" dance (Dutch), and of course, speeches, cannon-firing and many more festivities.  In 1836, the first military cannons entered the interior of Michigan. 
       Who brought the cannon? What conveyance got it there?  When did it arrive?  Where did it come from?    How did it get there?  Why was the cannon left at Lyons?  This was the first recorded instance of a cannon in the Grand River watershed.
       Did the army detachment leave it at Lyons as a defense from marauding Indians prior to the initial signing of the Treaty of 1836, because of fear the Indian's in this locale might instigate another Indian War.  Chief Dayomac and Manuquod villages presumably had those who didn't want to sell their Indian land. 
       Could it be these two cannons were destined for Washington Centre, a high-sounding name for what was to become known as Ionia in the near future?  Remember these were 4-pound iron cannons.  That was the largest of military cannons in the U.S. Army.  Might these two cannons have been poured from the same casts as that of Sam Houston's twin-sister cannons going to Texas?  Winter 1836.
      Next time I return to base course and I put the finishing touches on the legends of Chief Cobmoosa's treasure, but remember I take side-trips to reach conclusions and I've got another Indian legend pertaining to "Washington speaketh with forked tongue" intrigue - that of the treasure hunting Librarian. (continued)

Sunday, November 22, 2015

Legends of Chief Cobmoosa and Pres. A.J. - 35

      President Jackson had paid off the National debt in 1835. He had been studying the needs of the country and didn't like what his "kitchen cabinet" discovered.  Too many speculators and too many citizens with little money to spare were borrowing money with incredible high credit interest.  He realized that in time many of the poorer folks would lose their newly acquired lands.  In fact his mother was always just scraping by when he was younger.  Seemed like all were scrounging to make a living.  When a person doesn't work they shouldn't expect to eat free.  Starve a little to save and pay taxes.
       Through the eyes of President Jackson he removed government funds from the Bank of the United States and began his quest to put distance between the government and business.  As I said previously the specie circular order had been in the planning works three years into his administration (1832).  After watching for years how the Indians were paid for their lands he thought he had a plan on how to pay them more favorably and the specie circular was the answer.  He had seen enough abuses perpetrated on uneducated Indians by Fur Traders, Indian Traders and shyster business people who were always planning to defraud them of what little they got. 
       Some would think the Indian's got a good deal, but the educated half-breeds got more than Chiefs.  Others beneath them got only $1.25 per year while some Half-Breeds got thousands. The people often got swindled - incorrect change.  He witnessed it first hand and missionaries reported it to him in yearly reports. 
       Cobmoosa and Wabasis inherited most of money from their father-in-law Chief Wobwindigo who had two villages.  He was the tribes caretaker during the early 1830's, but he didn't spend it on himself.  He took care of others making sure that when the tribes were too sick with the Small Pox epidemics of 1831-1832 and 1836-37, he at the age of 69 led hunting parties up the Flat River basin for game.   
       With many generations wiped out by disease Cobmoosa had to teach the younger generations that survived how to hunt but he would walk to the hunting grounds and never go by canoe.  As far as I know history does not give information why Cobmoosa suffered from hydrophobia and the time line is unknown, but what is known it was from before he was 50.  Remember he grew up in Noon Days "rapids"  village was back beyond the Amway Hotel in Grand Rapids is today.   A near drowning someplace changed his perspective on water travel.  That's the center of the wild rapid days of the Grand River.
      This is what city fathers and sports professionals want to put back in place 2015.  Return the river to its once wild rapids known for its deafening noise.  The "Rapids" village was never on the shore.  It was established not on present day Monroe, but as far back as Ottawa and Ionia.  Any closer and the sounds of violent rushing water nobody could carry on a conversation.  The noise level of rushing water will increase to the point where the people will be able to carry on conversations near the waterfront.  Remember the original river bed up until the later 1840's fell 21 feet from Leonard to Fulton.
       I could never figure out why Noon Day's got a sculpture in Grand Rapids, when it was truly Cobmoosa who should have gotten it.  Noon Day in history was a blood savage hungry Indian who killed many settlers during his first 62 years of life.  Cobmoosa was the Grand River valleys peacekeeper.  He and Wabasis, along with Boshaw. tempered the fires of would-be renegades like Max Sauba dubbed the 'little rattlesnake."  He worried the settlers.
      Cobmoosa inherited the title as Chief - The last Ottawa Indian Chief of the Grand & Flat River areas. Two villages at Ionia, but since he never signed the Treaty of 1836 he received lesser amounts, and when Wobwindigo died from smallpox complications after returning from Washington.  Once Washington defaulted on the treaty the Indians remained in the river valley until Chief Cobmoosa signed the Treaty of 1855 that would force remaining Indians to northern reservations, but there were other Ottawa and Chippewa villages on the Grand River east of Ionia.
       As late as 1846 these villages were known as "Mishshiminecon, Chiminecon and Michigmmeny Cahniny" according to English interpretations "sour apple-tree and apple-orchard.  These were permanent villages for many years on section 22 in Danby Township complete with Indian graveyard..  These Indian villages raised corn in summer and sugar making in the spring.
       According to Indian legend of the time it made no difference to a dead person how they got to the graveyard.  The Indian philosophy was to tie her lifeless body to a pony tails with rope and drag her to her resting spot in the graveyard.  In the 1840's these villages were civilized by a Methodist preacher and they dressed an lived like white folks and provided a sustainable living from agriculture, but there were those who didn't like organized labor and were the renegades - the panhandlers.
        The Chiefs of the villages were Dayomac and Manuquod.  The prominent ones were Onewanda, Nacquit, Negumwatin, Sisshebee, Nikkenashwa, Whiskemuk, Pashik, Squagun, Thargee and Chedskunk. (continued)

Wednesday, November 18, 2015

Legends of Chief Cobmoosa & Pres. A.J. - 34

       Until January 1837 Jackson's primary goal was to free America from the shackles of a monopoly by rich outsiders whose power he deemed too great and whose public morals were bankrupt.  In his heart and mind he believed they were too loose for the country's good and that of the world.  He started his plan not in 1837, but five years earlier in 1832, when he transferred deposits from the Bank of the United States to what he thought were sound State banks because they would be custodians of public revenue.  He reasoned the crash of the markets would be less severe.  During his second term in office he revisited how his plan was unfolding.  Had he made the right decisions?  He saw the country slipping into moral decay.
       There comes a time in the lives of many men when it is required to reassess your actions.  In the back of our minds we begin to doubt our progress and what makes the biggest impact on how to correct problems.  Life's problems change and we can't always see our perils.  We can control our plan, but when additional problems creep into the mix we think 'could I have made better use of my time?  We win together or the CEO accepts all blame. 
       Jackson was no different - he just put in plans in motion and shoved off to lessen the collapse of the country.  After all he examined he trusted his instincts and made the right decisions.  Sometimes an altered plan change in course is a good thing.
       However he didn't know the depth of greedy speculators and shyster State bankers and the gamblers, lobbyists and speculators caused the final collapse of financial markets by fraudulent means by suspending Jackson's specie circular circumventing Jackson and President Van Buren's standing order.
       Bankers got caught up in the coils of speculation trying to rescue greedy men and protect other bankers.  Dishonest bankers falsified their books to hide their own peril.  Jackson repeatedly warned President Van Buren to examine all deposit banks and get the Treasury funds in places of safety.
       In March 1837 in President Martin Van Buren's first session of the 25th Congress his administration failed to accommodate businessmen with suspension of the specie circular.  The passage  of the Senate's Independent Treasury Bill died in the House of Representatives. 
       Van Buren felt constant pressure by the lobbyists and speculators to suspend the specie circular.  Even before Jackson left office he re-examined the depth of his perceptiveness.  He re-examined plans by which the Treasury should care for its own funds issuing its own money based on the metal in its own vaults.  The Treasury would issue its own money; gold and silver coinage for units less than 50 dollars and note currency above that unit.
       During Van Burens first litmus test about financial security his life was complicated when he had to stop his fellow Americans from New York intervening in the latest insurrection in Canada. This was just after September 1837 when the banks had just rescinded Jackson's specie circular starting the Panic of 1837 financial markets.  In late 1837 a group of Canadians dissatisfied with the British government broke out in revolt and attempted to establish their own independence.  The insurgents found much sympathy in New York citizens unknown to President Van Buren or the 25th Congress.
     The rebels resurrected an Army of 700 American men from the State of New York.  They took up arms, seizing and fortifying the old Navy Island in the Niagara River.  The loyalists in Canada attempted to recapture the island and failed, but they succeeded in burning the "Caroline," the supply ship of the New York army.  Loyalists of the Crown set it ablaze, cut her moorings and the burning vessel drifted down the river and down the precipice of Niagara Falls.
       This action caused considerable excitement and the peaceful relations of the United States and Great Britain was strained again by an unauthorized war.  The War of 1812-1818 prohibited either country from conducting military or naval operations on the Great Lakes and its connecting waters.  The American army was acting without authorization from President Van Buren and that was illegal. 
       President Van Buren then wrote a proclamation of neutrality to Great Britain; which forbid interference by American citizens to engage in the affairs of Canada.  General Wool was sent to the Niagara frontier with sufficient force to quell the disturbance and punish the guilty.  New York insurgents on Navy Island were obliged to surrender and order was restored.  Van Buren didn't relish the excitement, but the skirmish did improve the economy of America.  It was getting healthier and he had to once again get back into the business of separating the government from the business of Americans before the start of 1838. (continued)

Tuesday, November 17, 2015

Legends of Chief Cobmoosa & Pres. A.J. - 33

       What were "petty banks?"  These were state banks.  That where Old Hickory put the surplus money thinking they would be safe within a government institution.  Trouble is there seemed to be more criminals than honest bankers. 
       The broker's office sold specie while supplies of gold and silver lasted, which usually was gone before noon or night each day.  Night and noon boxes were seen passing from the land office to the broker's office and the specie used to buy land was used twice each day.  Crooks within pocketed 20 cents on each dollar every day.  Money was taken from the pockets of those who could least afford it.
       Those who bought land to make homesteads and farms often became disgusted and left without being refunded.  Jackson wondered why they didn't storm the land and broker offices once they found out that criminal activity was afoot.  Those who fell for the ruse did so out of respect for Old Hickory's presidency.  They trusted Jackson' wisdom and theorized he knew what he was doing issuing the specie circular law. 
       Capitalists and speculators not the same.  They reasoned the President was out of touch with their slipshod philosophy.  For those who felt jilted raiding the brokerage wasn't a safe exploit despite the speculators who swooped in taking the land and holding it from settlement or improvements for five to eight years.  Some paid taxes upon the land while those much poorer let it be sold for taxes.
       The specie circulars shock waves caused the economy to shudder during March and April of 1837 during President Van Buren's earliest days in office.  Jackson's foresight warned Van Buren not to rescind the specie circulation order, because many would try to overturn that ruling.  It was tough for Van Buren to let the law continue, but the banks illegally suspended specie payment not the government.  In doing so the mercantile businesses failed and the true 'Panic of 1837' took everyone by surprise.  By September 1837 every avenue of trade suffered.  During the last two months the failure rates for commerce in New York and New Orleans amounted to a 150 million dollar loss.  The government was about to be defrauded out of millions of dollars.
       Only then did a committee of businessmen from New York, Nashville and New Orleans convene in Washington to request that President Martin Van Buren rescind Jackson's 'specie circular' and call a special session of Congress.
       Van Buren denied the request so he and Congress could have time to study all the pros and cons of Jackson's specie circular law, but within a short time he caved in to pressure demands of businessmen by the distress felt around the country.  Jackson maintained he shouldn't have rescinded the order because the speculators were the greedy officials who didn't go through proper government policy to suspend specie payments.  They instead tried to lay the blame on Jackson, but it was greedy bankers and speculators who caused the panic and Jackson was their scapegoat.  Jackson in letters to Van Buren told him about twenty times not to give in to specie circular removal.
       When Congress reconvened in late September from summer recess several measures of relief were brought forward.  A bill authorizing the issue Treasury Notes not to exceed 10 million dollars was passed as a temporary provision.  It was brought before Congress as "The Independent Treasury Bill." 
       Provisions stated that public funds of the Nation were to be kept on deposit in a treasury to be established for that special purpose.  President Van Buren with special friends argued that all surplus monies of the country would drift into the Independent Treasury and lodge there as a means of checking against the speculative mania still present.  Extensive speculations couldn't be carried on without an abundance of currency.
      Former President Andrew Jackson and current President Van Buren's contention was to separate the business of the United States from the general business of the country.  With Jackson's issue of the specie circular he meant to help the country, but the shock waves were felt beyond its border - worldwide. 
       China and Japan today are the speculators thriving in America today and eventually if it isn't from terrorists America's economy will collapse under the weight of its own debts.  It continually borrows, but doesn't repay even a portion of what is spent.  President Jackson as I said was the ONLY president to have a zero national debt and still have a cash surplus. (continued)

Legends of Chief Cobmoosa & Pres. A.J. - 32

       During the Jackson years (1829-1837) credit extensions by traders and speculators (Europeans, too) to the public and Indians getting annuity payments were ripe with fraud.  Jackson sensed that soon every aspect of business would suffer.  Inflation was out of control.  The business of America was growing by leaps and bounds  - the land boom was operating at fever pitch and Jackson would use his 'specie circular' to slow down the criminal activity, which was to strike the public without warning.
       Extensive tracts of the most valuable Indian lands were soon being thrown into the market.  The officers of speculators and bankers were so devoid of all sense of honor as to practice by daylight the most barefaced lies and frauds against poor men who could least afford it.  Trusted bank and government officials joined the ranks as speculators showering others with criminal favoritism.  Those who were wealthy would bribe others to secure the greatest numbers of acreage to hold wild and free.
       President Jackson sensed economic danger ahead and then ordered the issue of his "specie circular," which meant that all Federal lands (Indian or American) must be purchased in gold and silver.  Fraudulent land deals were running rampant with worthless western currency and Jackson's newly ordered specie circular law shocked the speculators and economy - downturn.  The criminally negligent really started the Panic of 1836-37.  This is what Jackson attempted to do - break the fraud.
       The specie circular law came into force when greedy officials were swindling honest purchasers in detail and bulk.  Methods of fraud were extensive, but this new law required that each parcel of land be offered first at auction.  Bids were required to be in writing and placed in a box previous to the day of sale, but Jackson was unaware of the extent of dishonest businessmen who would rule the day.
       When the day of final decision arrived and the boxes were opened all bids were missing except the one put in by bribery to secure the largest tracts of land.  Under rules of engagement by Jackson's specie law only gold and silver or the bills of a few favored petty banks were received for lands.  The tender for the land caught the poorest of men unprepared who were unaware of specie circular demands.  They couldn't by the land on credit, however, some greedy officials exchanged cash from credit at 30% interest, which was way beyond the livable means of repayment.
       Those living on borrowed cash from credit were operating beyond the livable means of repayment and those who did so lost it to forfeiture and inability to pay taxes.  Jackson was unaware of the depth of greed gripping the country.  He knew it was bad, but wasn't expecting a financial panic.
       A broker's office was usually across the street from the land office and here is where the fleecing of poorer men began.  People said it was good to have a brokerage nearby for gold and silver, which was in high demand and paying a 10% premium.
       Yes, gold in America was in short supply.  Gold wasn't discovered in California until 1847 so where did Jackson get gold and silver coinage?  Well within two years of the Treaty of 1836 Jackson had established petty banks.
       Jackson before 1836 paid off the National Debt - no other President in America's history has ever done it - the debt under Pres. Obama went from $9 trillion to 18.5 Trillion dollars from 2009-2015.  Will the war on terror break America?
       When the Treaty of 1836 was signed, the National Debt had a zero balance and the U.S. Treasury had a $40 million dollar surplus.
       Jackson had invested 36 million dollars into a handful of his newly established "petty banks" and another four million dollars was used to purchase specially minted gold and silver coinage from Spain and Italy.  He had it in reserve for distribution to Indians for land payment prior in the spring of 1838 after the introduction of his specie circular law.  As land speculation boomed so did hundreds of new banks operating on fraud. (continued)

Monday, November 16, 2015

Legends of Chief Cobmoosa & Pres. A.J. -31

       Cobmoosa and Wabasis were son-in-laws of Chief Wobwindigo.  Both married the chiefs daughters and neither were chiefs until the death of Wobwindigo several months after the formal signing of the 1836 treaty.  Neither signed this treaty.  Wabasis became Chief of his own clan at his banishment village at Wabasis Lake in 1838 and Cobmoosa became the last Ottawa Chief of the Grand and Flat River tribes upon Wobwindigo's death in summer 1836. 
       Wobwindigo's last remaining son didn't want the responsibility for keeping together the remaining chiefs two villages fearing the small pox epidemic that was out of control prior to the signing of the treaty.  He took off for Gull Prairie and Cobmoosa stepped into Wobwindigo's moccasins and took command of the surviving people.  He had a caring heart for Wobwindigo's people.
       Cobmoosa like Wabasis were educated half-breeds.  They caught Washington in the big lie.  Washington had spoken, but this caused many Indian chiefs to say "Washington speaketh with forked tongue."  These five words spread across the Mississippi River, the prairies and mountains like wild fire warning all other tribes of Washington's indiscretions and the misdeeds of scoundrels that lie, cheat and attempt to steal opposite their teachings of the Holy Bible. 
       Congress had wrote in additional language to favor themselves at the Indians expense.  It would take another 24 years (1860) more to force remaining Indians from the Grand and Flat River area to reservations.  Cobmoosa was the last remaining Ottawa Chief and he did sign the Treaty of 1855.  He was Chief of the Ottawas from 1836-1866 by the death of his father-in-law Wobwindigo. 
       Although Cobmoosa signed the Treaty of 1855 it wasn't realized until about 125 years later (future) the Federal government failed to acquire Michigan's natural resources. It made no provisions for the earliest mistakes.  This was forgotten by the 24th Congress and omitted by former President Andrew Jackson and President Martin Van Buren's administrations, which culminated in Indian casinos today.  Michigan has two conservation law organizations for fisheries - Indian and American.  Van Buren tried to save face for the blunders of his administration, but at least he admitted to Indian injustice.
       There was much public jubilation once the Treaty of 1836 was signed, but the march of time was going to prove disastrous for the booming economy during Jackson's last year in office.  He had seen the pain brought against Indians thru invasion and years of fraud.  To slow down speculation fever he issued his "specie circular" on July 11, 1836.  Whether Indian or American any sales for land purchased from Indians had to be paid for in gold and silver coinage to pay debts under $50.00.  The economy was slowing and within the next several months a great depression caused widespread panic and the financial end did collapse under its own weight.  Many speculators lost their entire life savings and not even the wealthiest were immune to the economic disasters.
       President Jackson's own personal accounts suffered, too.  Fact is he told his young son Andrew not to get land speculation fever, but the young man fell into bad company and he did just as President Jackson feared.  The president bailed him out of his financial ruin.  Drought, the worst in Tennessee history put Jackson's own 1000 acre wheat field on the extinction list and put his Hermitage in dire straights of repair.  The value of qualified slaves dropped from $1,500 dollars to 500 per head.  The southern states were sorely disgruntled with Jackson's specie circular.  He used it not to break the people, but to save them from worst financial  ruin.  (continued)

Friday, November 13, 2015

Legends of Chief Cobmoosa & Pres. A.J. -30

       During President Jackson's administration the American economy had gained substantial financial footing, but he feared the speculative spending would in the near future cause chaos in financial markets.  Speculators, many of whom were from Europe, were too willing to assume great risks in purchasing power and lobbyists were pressuring Washington to open land offices in advance of opening large tracts of wild land for purchase.
       The Federal government couldn't sell Indian lands until they were surveyed and advancing on these wild lands was prohibited until treaties were signed for lands north of the Grand River (western Michigan to the Straits of Mackinaw).
       Two years before the Treaty (1834) was signed an Indian named Negake engaged a government surveyor trespassing.  The surveyor claimed he accidentally strayed across the Grand River, but an enraged renegade Indian named Negake confronted him and in a fight killed the surveyor.    The surveyor had strict orders not to cross the Grand River.  The government could not intervene.
       This confrontation is what fired up the renegades demanding that the Chiefs act against government intrusion, which is why the dark night sky north of Kent (Grand Rapids) glowed brighter each night and settlers were getting worried by the sounds of louder drumming.  This is exactly what Jackson feared would happen before the treaty was signed.
       Jackson's missionaries were busily teaching the Indians about religion (Baptist or Catholic) and how to live as civilized people under the Ten Commandments, but one indiscretion of a American bad apples could bring treaty negotiations to a standstill.  This would enrage both sides and Jackson didn't want bloodshed between either party.
       Jackson didn't want another Indian war, but on the same token he wanted to prepare the Indians for a wave of future settlers seeking a better life - that's if they had the money to purchase wild lands. Jackson wanted to make sure the Indians during his years were paid fairly and he saw the abuses in how they were fraudulently paid at a time when the business of the country was showing signs of increasing too fast for sustainability.
       Ever increasing speculation fever put strain on Congress to open the land offices soon.  Speculators were rushing to get the upper hand at wild land auctions.  The public was getting anxious and rejoiced over the prospects of purchasing land within the new treaty area and so the initial treaty was signed in Washington on March 28, 1836 and the formal signing (original) May 28, 1836 was signed by the "People of Three Fires" for lands north of the Grand River.  The formal signing was doomed for failure and broken by Congress when Jackson, while reading the signed treaty discovered that Congress (responsibility) gave no timeline for Indian removal. The legislature also failed to include in the treaty specifics; reservations and purchase of Indian natural resources.
       President Jackson was furious.  He spent much time educating and bringing religion to the forefront with treaty Indians.  Capitalists and speculators wanted this land on the auction block soon so he told Congressmen they had to fix the mounting problems before bidding could start.  Congress didn't want to admit they made a huge treaty error so they got the bright idea to fraudulently tamper, change and add removal date and reservation language after the formal treaty was signed after May 28, 1836.
       Congress didn't want the public to know they were responsible for creating a disastrous mess.  The Twenty-Fourth Congress (1835-37) had manipulated, changed and added wording to the original document signed by the Indian Chiefs.  The government produced proof for Indian removal, but Congress forgot the Grand and Flat River tribes were indoctrinated with an education and religion.  Indian Chiefs that signed the initial and formal treaty were given the exact duplicate, which didn't match the (forged) documents signed in Washington.
       Educated Indian Chief's like Cobmoosa and Wabasis caught Washington in a "lie" and the Chiefs pointed out that nowhere in the initial and formal treaty signatures did it give date of removal (1841) to three reservations; Pentwater, Mt. Pleasant or Traverse City.  In futuristic language Congress didn't want to admit to the public and speculators they tried to pull a Crazy Ivan (Russian) on the Indians and got caught in their own lie.  (continued)