During President Jackson's administration the American economy had gained substantial financial footing, but he feared the speculative spending would in the near future cause chaos in financial markets. Speculators, many of whom were from Europe, were too willing to assume great risks in purchasing power and lobbyists were pressuring Washington to open land offices in advance of opening large tracts of wild land for purchase.
The Federal government couldn't sell Indian lands until they were surveyed and advancing on these wild lands was prohibited until treaties were signed for lands north of the Grand River (western Michigan to the Straits of Mackinaw).
Two years before the Treaty (1834) was signed an Indian named Negake engaged a government surveyor trespassing. The surveyor claimed he accidentally strayed across the Grand River, but an enraged renegade Indian named Negake confronted him and in a fight killed the surveyor. The surveyor had strict orders not to cross the Grand River. The government could not intervene.
This confrontation is what fired up the renegades demanding that the Chiefs act against government intrusion, which is why the dark night sky north of Kent (Grand Rapids) glowed brighter each night and settlers were getting worried by the sounds of louder drumming. This is exactly what Jackson feared would happen before the treaty was signed.
Jackson's missionaries were busily teaching the Indians about religion (Baptist or Catholic) and how to live as civilized people under the Ten Commandments, but one indiscretion of a American bad apples could bring treaty negotiations to a standstill. This would enrage both sides and Jackson didn't want bloodshed between either party.
Jackson didn't want another Indian war, but on the same token he wanted to prepare the Indians for a wave of future settlers seeking a better life - that's if they had the money to purchase wild lands. Jackson wanted to make sure the Indians during his years were paid fairly and he saw the abuses in how they were fraudulently paid at a time when the business of the country was showing signs of increasing too fast for sustainability.
Ever increasing speculation fever put strain on Congress to open the land offices soon. Speculators were rushing to get the upper hand at wild land auctions. The public was getting anxious and rejoiced over the prospects of purchasing land within the new treaty area and so the initial treaty was signed in Washington on March 28, 1836 and the formal signing (original) May 28, 1836 was signed by the "People of Three Fires" for lands north of the Grand River. The formal signing was doomed for failure and broken by Congress when Jackson, while reading the signed treaty discovered that Congress (responsibility) gave no timeline for Indian removal. The legislature also failed to include in the treaty specifics; reservations and purchase of Indian natural resources.
President Jackson was furious. He spent much time educating and bringing religion to the forefront with treaty Indians. Capitalists and speculators wanted this land on the auction block soon so he told Congressmen they had to fix the mounting problems before bidding could start. Congress didn't want to admit they made a huge treaty error so they got the bright idea to fraudulently tamper, change and add removal date and reservation language after the formal treaty was signed after May 28, 1836.
Congress didn't want the public to know they were responsible for creating a disastrous mess. The Twenty-Fourth Congress (1835-37) had manipulated, changed and added wording to the original document signed by the Indian Chiefs. The government produced proof for Indian removal, but Congress forgot the Grand and Flat River tribes were indoctrinated with an education and religion. Indian Chiefs that signed the initial and formal treaty were given the exact duplicate, which didn't match the (forged) documents signed in Washington.
Educated Indian Chief's like Cobmoosa and Wabasis caught Washington in a "lie" and the Chiefs pointed out that nowhere in the initial and formal treaty signatures did it give date of removal (1841) to three reservations; Pentwater, Mt. Pleasant or Traverse City. In futuristic language Congress didn't want to admit to the public and speculators they tried to pull a Crazy Ivan (Russian) on the Indians and got caught in their own lie. (continued)